To 135th Birth of Albert Schweitzer (* 01/14/1875)
Albert Schweitzer (born 14 January 1875 in Kaysersberg in Upper Alsace in Colmar, Empire; † 4 September 1965 in Lambaréné, Gabon) was a Protestant theologian, organist, music, philosopher and physician. In the Evangelical Church is his commemoration on 4 September.
As a physician, founded Schweitzer Hospital in Lambaréné in Gabon. He received the 1952 Nobel Peace Prize. Before and alongside his work in Lambaréné Schweitzer published his theological and philosophical views, his work on music, especially Bach, but also in numerous autobiographical and highly regarded works. He was also co-editor of an edition of Bach's organ works.
Early Life and Education
Schweitzer came from an Alemannic-Alsatian family. He was born in the kingdom of Alsace-Lorraine, from 1871 to 1918 belonged to the newly founded German Empire. His real mother tongue was the Alsatian dialect of the local Alemannic. High German as the official the official and written language learned Schweitzer, like most of dialect speakers in the German-speaking world, only at school. In addition, even French was spoken in his family. After graduating from high school in 1893 in Mulhouse Albert Schweitzer studied at the University of Strasbourg, the subjects theology and philosophy from which he studied in Paris with Charles-Marie Widor organ and was a member of the fraternity in Wilhelmitana-Schwarzburg covenant.
Following graduation, he received his doctorate in philosophy in 1899 in Berlin with a dissertation on "the religious philosophy of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason to Religion within the Limits of Reason." 1901 followed the theological thesis "Critical representation of the different conceptions of recent historical Supper" (first published 1906), in the second version takes the better known title "History of the Life of Jesus research" (Tübingen, 1913).
1902 took place at the University of Strasbourg in the habilitation of Protestant theology with Scripture "The Messianitäts and suffering secret." A university lecturer, he was a lecturer in theology at the University of Strasbourg and vicar of the church of St. Nicholas. His theology was at among others Fritz Buri reverberation. Schweitzer wrote in 1905 to the French edition of Johann Sebastien Bach, which was followed three years later in 1908 his new monograph authored German Bach.
From 1905 to 1913 Albert Schweitzer studied medicine in Liege, with the aim in Africa (Gabon) to be active as a missionary doctor. The enrollment for the study of medicine was very complicated. Schweitzer was already a lecturer at the University of Strasbourg. Only special permission from the government made the study possible. In 1912 he was certified to the doctor, in the same year he was awarded the title of professor on the basis of his "creditable scientific work". In 1913 his medical thesis "The psychiatric assessment of Jesus, exposition and critique." In this work he refuted, analogous to his theological dissertation, contemporary attempts to shed light on the life of Jesus from a psychiatric point of view. Thus it was, at the age of 38 years and before he went to Africa, PhD in three different areas, had habilitation and was a professor.
After the Second World War it much public honor. Said in his speech for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1952, Schweitzer made clear for a general condemnation of war: "War makes us guilty of inhumanity", "quoted" Albert Schweitzer Erasmus of Rotterdam ... Due to the Geneva Convention of 1864 and the founding of the "Red Cross", there had been a "humanization of war," which would have meant that people had 1914 not the beginning of World War I taken seriously in the way that they would have should do.
Albert Schweitzer was 44 years old when his Alsatian home was assigned in 1918 as a result of World War I returned to the French territory (France). He received French citizenship. He described himself as an Alsatian but willingly and "citizen of the world", and the German and French, he dominated almost equally well. Connected him with France, including Jean-Paul Sartre, the son of Schweitzer's cousin Anne-Marie. The critical discussion of the just in France popularized existentialism employed him in his last years of life. Schweitzer's great-nephew, Louis Schweitzer was Chairman from 1992-2005 of the French automotive group Renault. Gunsbach is headquarters of the International Albert Schweitzer Association.
The issue of ethics in the higher development of human thought
Schweitzer's 1962 from the quintessence of his philosophical thinking assumes that people recognize when thinking about themselves and their limits mutually as brothers who think about themselves and their limits. As part of the civilizing process is the solidarity that was originally referred only to their own tribe, and according to all, transfer and unknown people. In world religions and philosophies, these stages of cultural development are conserved.
Analogous acts in the world-denying religions of the Indian cultural group to the philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer the spread of compassion, which in Brahmanism is beyond the (true) metaphysics in the suffering of the (incorrect) material world founded and therefore rejected, in Buddhism to provide added required and Metaphysics in Hinduism is integrated into everyday life, which is understood as a game of the gods with men. (Bhagavad Gita) The required indifference to suffering committed to pacifism.
The spread of the world-affirming Zoroastrian Persian settlers, united in solidarity against pagan nomads, influenced Greek philosophy, in the Stoics Panätios justified the acceptance of the world with an all-encompassing reason to develop in Seneca, Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius as a virtue of all virtues of humanism.
In the crucible of the Persian and Greek culture, Judaism and Christianity arose, who see the world as a true but incomplete. Christianity calls for renunciation to the expansion of human good and is in search of the commandment of all the commandments is also the ideal of humanism.
Since the Renaissance, the grown-directed virtue of all virtues and the inside bid led all bids at a secular law (Erasmus of Rotterdam), the basis for the utilitarianism of Jeremy Bentham, while David Hume assumes a natural empathy as the cause. Immanuel Kant connects this with the dualism and moved morale in the form of the categorical imperative in the nature of man, who lives in the spiritual world as subject and object in an object only.
The frequent failure of the moral claim makes a good conscience be a myth, while the civilization is eroding confidence and a sense of resignation and with the consequence of reactive sentimentality. Thus, this pressure causes the subject to be being as "will to live surrounded by the will to live" on the other understands and underpinned this experience with the commandment to love Jesus, we need guidance. Then it combines the commandments of conscience in the form of the categorical imperative in the spiritual world with the virtues in the objective world and recognizes the difference between good and evil as an expression of life-damaging and life-promoting effects and finds the highest moral value.
This moral value allows a view of life, in the life-affirmation, not knowledge, but a Spirit category, denial of life in the consideration of the will of others is and Lebensentsagung in verinnerlichenden, himself collected (music) and perfecting commandment is, one's own life by vocation raising it to the moral value of ethics, folk wisdom of "What you do not want that do to you ', unto others as unto others as to" to "Love your neighbor as yourself," combines and transmits to all living things.
(Photos and text from Wikipedia)